Shanghai

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For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation).
Municipality in the People's Republic of China

Municipality in People's Republic of China
Shanghai

上海市
Municipality
Clockwise from top: Lujiazui skyline with the Huangpu River, Yu Garden, China pavilion at Expo 2010 (now China Art Museum), Qibao, Nanjing Road, and The Bund
Etymology: 上海浦 (Shànghăi Pǔ)
"The original name of the Huangpu River."
Location of Shanghai Municipality in China
Coordinates (People's Square): 31°13′43″N 121°28′29″E / 31.22861°N 121.47472°E / 31.22861; 121.47472Coordinates: 31°13′43″N 121°28′29″E / 31.22861°N 121.47472°E / 31.22861; 121.47472
CountryPeople's Republic of China
Settledc. 4000 BC[1]
Establishment of
 - Qinglong Town

746[2]
 - Shanghai County1292[3]
 - Municipality7 July 1927
Divisions
 - County-level
 - Township-
level

16 districts
210 towns and subdistricts
Government
 • TypeMunicipality
 • Party SecretaryLi Qiang
 • MayorYing Yong
 • Congress ChairwomanYin Yicui
 • Municipal CPPCC ChairmanDong Yunhu[4]
Area
[5][6][7]
 • Municipality6,341 km2 (2,448 sq mi)
 • Water697 km2 (269 sq mi)
 • Urban
 (2018)[8]
4,000 km2 (1,550 sq mi)
Elevation
[9]
4 m (13 ft)
Population
 (2018)[10]
 • Municipality24,237,800
 • Rank1st in China
 • Density3,800/km2 (9,900/sq mi)
 • Metro
[11]
34,000,000
Demonym(s)Shanghainese
Time zoneUTC+08:00 (CST)
Postal code
200000–202100
Area code(s)21
ISO 3166 codeCN-SH
Nominal GDP[10]2018
 - Total¥3.27 trillion (11th)
$494 billion
 - Per capita¥135,212 (2nd)
$20,425
$39,600 PPP
 - Growth 6.6%
HDI (2017)0.863[12] (4th) – very high
License plate prefixes沪A, B, D, E, F, G, H, J, K, L, M, N
沪C (outer suburbs only)
AbbreviationSH / (Hù)
City flowerYulan magnolia
LanguagesWu (Shanghainese)
Mandarin (Putonghua)
Websitewww.shanghai.gov.cn (in Chinese)
English Version
Shanghai
"Shanghai" in regular Chinese characters
Chinese上海
Hanyu PinyinShànghǎi
WuZaan22 he44
Literal meaning"Upon the Sea"
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinShànghǎi
Bopomofoㄕㄤˋ   ㄏㄞˇ
Gwoyeu RomatzyhShanqhae
Wade–GilesShang4-hai3
IPA[ʂâŋ.xài]
Wu
RomanizationZaan22 he44
Shanghainese
Romanization
Zånhae
Hakka
RomanizationSông-hói
Yue: Cantonese
Yale RomanizationSeuhnghói
JyutpingSoeng6hoi2
IPA[sœ̀ːŋ.hɔ̌ːy]
Southern Min
Hokkien POJSiōng-hái
Eastern Min
Fuzhou BUCSiông-hāi

Shanghai (Chinese: 上海; Shanghainese pronunciation: [zɑ̃.hɛ] (listen), Putonghua pronunciation: [ʂâŋ.xài] (listen)) is one of the four municipalities of the People's Republic of China. It is located on the southern estuary of the Yangtze, and the Huangpu River flows through it. With a population of 24.2 million as of 2018[update], it is the most populous urban area in China and the second most populous city proper in the world. Shanghai is a global center for finance, innovation, and transportation, and the Port of Shanghai is the world's busiest container port.

Originally a fishing village and market town, Shanghai grew in importance in the 19th century due to trade and its favorable port location. The city was one of five treaty ports forced open to foreign trade after the First Opium War. The Shanghai International Settlement and the French Concession were subsequently established. The city then flourished, becoming a primary commercial and financial hub of the Asia-Pacific region in the 1930s. During the Second Sino-Japanese War, the city was the site of the major Battle of Shanghai. After the war, with the CPC takeover of mainland China in 1949, trade was limited to other socialist countries, and the city's global influence declined.

In the 1990s, economic reforms introduced by Deng Xiaoping resulted in an intense redevelopment of the city, especially the Pudong district, aiding the return of finance and foreign investment to the city. The city has since re-emerged as a hub for international trade and finance; it is the home of the Shanghai Stock Exchange, one of the largest stock exchanges in the world by market capitalization, and the Shanghai Free-Trade Zone, the first free-trade zone in China.

Shanghai has been described as the "showpiece" of the booming economy of China. Featuring several architecture styles such as Art Deco and shikumen, the city is renowned for its Lujiazui skyline, museums, and historic buildings—including the City God Temple, the Yu Garden, the China Pavilion, and buildings along the Bund. Shanghai is also known for its sugary cuisine and distinctive dialect, Shanghainese. Every year, the city hosts numerous national and international events, including Shanghai Fashion Week, the Chinese Grand Prix, and ChinaJoy.